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On 5 Mar 2005 at 6:35, Ken wrote:

> Hi it's me again
> Do you have a good recipes for Italian style Calves Liver?
> Thank you 
> Ken

Hello Ken,

The Italian word for liver is "fegato". The best known Italian recipe for calves liver is "fegato alla Veneziana", or "liver Venetian Style". See below for several fegato recipes.


Fegato alla Milanese 

Sprinkle liver lightly with flour, salt and pepper. Dip in egg, then in 
bread crumbs. Fry liver in hot butter in skillet 5 minutes each side. 
Serve with liquor from pan as gravy. Garnish with lemon wedges and parsley. 
Fegato alla salvia (Liver with sage)

Preparation time: 10 minutes. 
Cooking time: 5 minutes 
12 slices of calf's liver cut about a centimetre thick(approx. 900g) 
5 cloves of garlic 
5tbsp extra-virgine olive oil 
Fresh sage leaves 
Remove the thin skin tissue around the slices of liver, to prevent them 
shrivelling while cooking. Coat both sides with flour.
Using a large frying pan, gently fry the cloves of garlic in the oil; 
add the washed and dried sage leaves and when the oil begins to sizzle 
slide in the slice of liver. Fry on each side for a couple of minutes 
so that the outside is crisp and golden but inside the liver remains 
soft and tender. Salt both sides, remove from the frying pan and place 
on a platter lined with kitchen paper to drain off the excess oil. 
Before bringing to the table, remove the kitchen paper and any remaining 
leaves of sage.
If you prefer with the meat, pour a glass of white wine over the liver 
and let it reduce well, arrange on a large platter and bring to the table 
with the pepper mill for those who like. With or without a sauce, liver 
is delicious with fried potatoes or fresh salad.
 Fegato Alla Instriana 
Yield: 1 Servings


      2 lb calf's liver, soaked overnight, in; milk
      4 tb olive oil
      2 lg spanish onions, sliced, in 1/2 ring; s
      1    carrot, in 1/4 half moons
      4    ribs celery, in 1/4 pieces
      4    cloves garlic, thinly sliced
      2 c  s red wine from friuli
    1/2 c  veal stock, demiglace
      1    juice and zest of 2 lemons
      2 tb butter


Drain calf's liver and pat dry. Cut into 1-inch thick pieces and season
with salt and pepper and dredge in salt. In a 12 to 14-inch saute pan over
high flame, heat olive oil until smoking. Saute liver pieces until dark
golden brown on both sides and remove to a plate. Add onions, carrot,
celery, garlic and cloves and cook until softened, about 8 to 10 minutes.
Add red wine, veal stock and lemon juice and reduce by half. Place liver
and escaped juices back into pan with wine mixture. Add butter and simmer 8
to 10 minutes until liver is warmed through to medium. Garnish with lemon
zest and serve with bruscandoli.

Yield: 4 servings
Fegato Alla Veneziana 
   Amount  Measure       Ingredient -- Preparation Method
 --------  ------------  --------------------------------
    4      Tablespoons   olive oil -- lus 4 T
    6                    Spanish onions -- in 1/8" dice
    2      Tablespoons   balsamic vinegar -- plus 4 T
   12      Thin Rounds   pancetta
    1 1/2  Pounds        young calf's liver -- sliced 1/2" thick
                         and soaked in milk overnight
      1/2  Cup           seasoned flour
    1      Bunch         Italian parsley -- chopped
 Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.
 In a 12 to 14-inch saute pan, heat oil over medium heat and add onions.
 Slowly cook the onions until they are soft and starting to turn light
 golden brown, about 10 to 12 minutes. Add balsamic vinegar and continue
 cooking for 20 minutes until very soft and tan, that is, caramelized.
 Meanwhile, place pancetta rounds on a cookie sheet lined with parchment and
 bake 8 to 10 minutes, until crispy and brown. Remove and place on a plate
 with paper towels to drain.
 Place a 12 to 14-inch saute pan over high heat. Remove liver from milk, pat
 dry and dredge in seasoned flour. Pour remaining olive oil in pan and add
 liver, 3 pieces at a time, and quickly cook until dark golden brown, about
 2 to 3 minutes. Turn and cook 1 minute on other side. Continue until all
 liver is done. When last liver is out, add caramelized onions to liver pan
 and splash with remaining vinegar. Replace liver in pan and cook until hot.
 Add parsley and put on a plate, placing pancetta over top.
Fegato Alla Veneziana


2 lb. calf’s liver, trimmed with the thin membrane peeled off.
6 tbs. extra-virgin olive oil.
6 small yellow onions, peeled and thinly sliced.
3 tbs. butter.
1/2 bunch parsley, trimmed and chopped.
Salt and fresh ground pepper. (Coarse sea salt and Malabar Black pepper is the best combination).

Cut liver into four long pieces with the grain, then with a very sharp 
knife slice each piece crosswise into as thin as possible pieces.

Heat 4 tbs. of the olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add 
onions and cook stirring frequently for approx. 20 minutes until soft 
and golden brown. Make sure you don’t burn the onions. Remove onions 
with slotted spoon and set aside.
Increase heat to medium-high and add remaining oil. When oil is sizzling 
hot, add liver and cook, preferably in batches to avoid overcrowding the 
skillet, until brown and crispy on the edges, 4-5 minutes. Season liberally 
with salt and pepper, then add reserved onions and accumulated juices. 
Cook for another 2 minutes, stirring and turning liver and onions constantly 
while shaking skillet over heat. Transfer to heated serving platter.
Add butter to skillet and deglaze as butter melts. Remove skillet from heat 
and stir in parsley. Spoon butter and parsley mixture over liver and onions. 
Serve with grilled polenta.

Coconut Jam

On 3 Mar 2005 at 9:28, Shirley wrote:

> Dear Phaedrus,
> Please could you find a recipe for coconut jam.  I have looked for
> cocoa nut and coco nut, to no avail.  There was a recipe once made
> with egg, but this was not very nice.  This should be mainly fresh
> coconut, sugar, and water.  I have seen jars of it being sold on a
> show once, but it was for some hotel in Tahiti, and it is not readily
> available.  We have a few  coconut trees, and it would be nice to make
> use of the meat in other ways. Hope all turns out well with the
> search. Very nice web site. Thank you for your time. SYoung

Hello Shirley,

There are two kinds of coconut jam recipes on the web - no American recipes that I can find.

One is Egyptian, the first recipe below. The second is Southeast Asian, the second one below.

I could not find any Tahitian or Polynesian recipes.


Coconut Jam
1 pound flaked unsweetened coconut
2 tablespoons orange-blossom water or rosewater (at gourmet and Middle East markets)
2 cups sugar
1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
2 cup unsalted pistachios
2 cup blanched almonds, chopped

Sprinkle coconut with flower water and 4 cup water, fluffing as you do so.
Cover and leave overnight. In saucepan combine sugar, lemon juice and 2 cup 
water. Simmer about 5 minutes, stirring constantly, to thicken. Add soaked 
coconut and slowly bring to a boil again, stirring constantly. Remove from 
heat as soon as it boils or it will harden and yellow. Let cool. Mix in nuts 
and pour into glass bowl. Serve the following day or refrigerate in tightly 
sealed sterilized jar.
Kaya, Traditional Coconut Egg Jam 


1 can coconut milk (thick cream) 
400g sugar 
10 eggs 

FYI: You can sometimes find kaya in the supermarket. Check out the jam section.
 To prepare: 
Beat eggs using a mixer, use medium speed 
Add sugar and beat at high speed 
Make sure to mix thoroughly 
Stop the mixer, add the coconut milk and then beat using high speed till well 
mixed. Make sure sugar has completely dissolved.
Pour kaya into a pot and cook over slow fire 
IMPORTANT: Constant stirring is a must otherwise the jam will burn 
The jam will eventually change from cream egg-white to a red-brown color, 
this is due to the caramel forming from the sugar. 
Continue with stirring to prevent the jam from burning at the bottom, 
lowering the flames if need be 
Once there is no streak left in the kaya, take it off the stove and allow 
to cool 
To serve: 

Like any other jam, kaya can be spread onto any bread ideally for breakfast 
TIP: To keep the jam, sterilized the jars first using hot water. Once the 
kaya has cooled, you can place it into the jars and keep in the refrigerator 
for future use. 

Berry Syrups

On 2 Mar 2005 at 22:18, Patti wrote:

> I have searched high and low for a huckleberry syrup recipe. There are
> all kinds of other berry syrup recipes, but no huckleberry. I came
> across your web site and thought you might be able to help. Thanks..
> Patti

Hello Patti,

I could not find a recipe specifically for huckleberry syrup, but below are some generic berry syrup recipes in which huckleberries can be used.


"Syrups made from blackberries, huckleberries, raspberries, boysenberries,
loganberries, sour cherries, and Island Belle grapes as well as mixtures 
of berries are of good flavor, color, and consistency (thin like maple syrup, 
medium thick like corn syrup, or slightly jelled). Syrups can be made with 
or without pectin and lemon juice. Lemon juice may improve color. Use of 
pectin will vary consistency."

      To Prepare Fruit Puree:
Sort, stem, and wash ripe fruit or thaw frozen unsweetened fruit; crush 
fruit thoroughly; measure crushed fruit.  Add 1 cup boiling water to each 
4 cups crushed fruit and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer to soften--
about 5 for soft fruits...about 10 minutes for firm fruits like cherries 
and grapes. Press through sieve.

      Syrups Made With Puree
      4 cups puree
      4 cups sugar
      1/2 package or less powdered pectin (if desired)
      3 or 4 Tbsp lemon juice (if desired)

      1. Mix puree, sugar, pectin and lemon juice.
      2. Bring to boil and stir for 2 minutes (boil till jelly thermometer 
	  reaches 218°F).
      3. Remove from heat, skim off foam, and pour into 1/2 pint or 1 pint 
	  jars to within 1/2 inch of top.
      4. Adjust lids and process in boiling water bath canner for 10 minutes.
      5. Remove from canner and cool.
      6. Check lids, label, and store in cool, dry place.

      To Prepare Fruit Juice:
      Sort, stem and wash ripe fruit or thaw frozen, unsweetened fruit; 
  crush fruit thoroughly. Place crushed fruit in dampened jelly bag 
  and drain. For clearest juice, do not press bag to extract juice. 
  For firm fruits, heat is needed to start flow of juice. Add about 
  1/2 cup water to each 3 cups crushed fruit. Bring to a boil, reduce 
  heat and simmer 10 minutes. Place hot fruit in dampened jelly bag; 

      Syrups Made With Juice
      4 cups juice
      4 cups sugar
      1/4 cup lemon juice (if desired)
      1/2 package or less powdered pectin (if desired)

      1. Mix juice, sugar, lemon juice and pectin.
      2. Bring to boil and boil 2 minutes.
      3. Remove from heat, skim off foam, and pour into 1/2 pint or 1 pint 
	  canning jars to within 1/2 inch of top.
      4. Adjust lids and process in boiling water bath canner for 10 minutes.
      5. Remove from canner and let cool.
      6. Check lids, labels, and store in cool, dry place. 

General Syrup Recipe for Syrups Made with Juice 

4 cups juice 
4 cups sugar 
1/4 cup bottled lemon juice (if desired) 
1/2 package or less powdered pectin (if desired) 
Mix juice, sugar, lemon juice and pectin. Bring to boil and boil 2 minutes. 
Remove from heat, skim off foam, and pour into 1/2 pint or 1 pint canning 
jars to within 1/2-inch of top. Adjust lids and process in boiling water 
bath canner for 10 minutes. Remove from canner and cool. Check lids, label, 
and store in cook, dry place. 

Approximate yield: 8 half-pints or 4 pints 


On 3 Mar 2005 at 16:49, Jasmin wrote:

> Dear Person,
> My friends and I are fighting about the difference between caramel and 
> carmel. they say there's no difference and I say there is. Who is
> right? 
> Sincerely,
> Jasmin

Hi Jasmin,

You are. There's a HUGE difference:

"Caramel" is burnt sugar or a candy made from sugar, butter, and milk. Kraft makes caramel candies.

"Carmel" is a PLACE. The original Carmel is a mountain near Haifa in Israel - "Mount Carmel". There's also Carmel, California, and dozens of other places named after Israel's Mount Carmel, which is mentioned in the Bible.

Lots of people spell "caramel" as "carmel" - they are wrong, wrong, wrong. If you are talking about a candy or a flavor, then it's CARAMEL. If you are talking about a place, such as a mountain or a town or a church or something connected with a church, then and ONLY then is it "CARMEL".


Update: People have been misusing "carmel" for "caramel" for so long now that some dictionaries are now giving "carmel" as an alternate for "caramel".

Mashuga Nuts

On 3 Mar 2005 at 1:36, Kim wrote:

> Hi!
>  I hope you  can help.  Trader Joe's use to sell a candied nut
>  called 'Mashuga Nuts.'  It was pecans with a cinnamon and
>  meringue coating.  I would love to get a hold of the recipe and
>  remake it.  Any chance that it is out there?
> Kim 

Hi Kim,

"Mashuga nuts" are actually a Jewish delicacy. "Mashuga" means "crazy" in Yiddish. Mashuga nuts are for sale at many sites on the Internet.

I could not find a single recipe for mashuga nuts. There are dozens of spiced pecan recipes out there, but none specifically for "mashuga nuts". The below recipe is the only one I found that claimed to be similar to mashuga nuts, although it uses mixed nuts instead of just pecans.


Update 2013: There are now mashuga nuts recipes here:

Family Cookbook Project

Cookies and Cups

Spiced Nuts  
3/4 cup firmly packed brown sugar 
1 teaspoon cinnamon, or Sweet Spice Blend 
1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt 
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 
1/4 teaspoon each ground cloves and allspice 
2 tablespoons water 
1 cup each walnut, pecan, and whole almonds (or any other combination making 3 cups nuts) 

In microwave safe batter bowl, combine sugar, spices, salt, and water. 
Microwave on high for 2 minutes. Stir. Microwave 1 minute more, to dissolve 
the sugar and make a sticky syrup. Stir in the nuts. Divide mixture in half. 
Return half to microwave and cook for 3 minutes on high. Stir. Microwave 
another 1-2 minutes, or until the nuts have caramelized and are not yet 
burning. Spread hot nut mixture in a single layer on a buttered baking sheet. 
Repeat with the second half. Allow to cool before breaking into chunks. 


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